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He served as a volunteer in the British Army between and He was also a member of the faculty at Princeton University. The following is an excerpt from his book- The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. The book has been reviewed as one of the best books ever written on Gandhi by Times Educational Supplement. It was in There were 2, delegates and many visitors. It was in the foothills of the towering Himalayas, near the kingdom of Nepal.
Under an ancient arrangement, the Champaran peasants were sharecroppers. Rajkumar Shukla was one of them. He was illiterate but resolute. Shukla accompanied him everywhere. Then Gandhi returned to his ashram near Ahmedabad.
Shukla followed him to the ashram. Come and meet me and take me from there. Shukla was sitting on his haunches at the appointed spot in Calcutta when Gandhi arrived; he waited till Gandhi 1. Strike out what is not true in was free. Then the two of them the following. Rajkumar Shukla was in Bihar. There Shukla led him to i a sharecropper. Rajendra Prasad who later became iii delegate. President of the Congress party and b. Rajkumar Shukla was of India. Rajendra Prasad was out i poor.
Shukla as a poor yeoman who iii illiterate. Why is Rajkumar Shukla indigo sharecroppers. Why do you think the companion, Gandhi, whom they took servants thought Gandhi to be to be another peasant. But Gandhi another peasant? Gandhi decided to go first to Muzzafarpur, which was en route to Champaran, to obtain more complete information about conditions than Shukla was capable of imparting.
He accordingly sent a telegram to Professor J. The train. Kripalani was waiting at the station with a large body of students. Gandhi stayed there for two days in the home of Professor Malkani, a teacher in a government school. In smaller localities, the Indians were afraid to show sympathy for advocates of home-rule.
Sharecroppers from Champaran began arriving on foot and by conveyance to see their champion. Muzzafarpur lawyers called on Gandhi to brief him; they frequently represented peasant groups in court; they told him about their cases and reported the size of their fee.
Gandhi chided the lawyers for collecting big fee from the sharecroppers. Taking such cases to the courts does litte good. Where the peasants are so crushed and fear-stricken, law courts are useless. The real relief for them is to be free from fear.
The chief commercial crop was indigo. The landlords compelled all tenants to plant three twentieths or 15 per cent of their holdings with indigo and surrender the entire indigo harvest as rent. This was done by long-term contract. Presently, the landlords learned that Germany had developed synthetic indigo. They, thereupon, obtained agreements from the 1. List the places that Gandhi sharecroppers to pay them visited between his first compensation for being released meeting with Shukla and his from the 15 per cent arrangement.
The sharecropping arrangement 2. What did the peasants pay the was irksome to the peasants, and British landlords as rent? What did the British now want many signed willingly. Those who instead and why? What would resisted, engaged lawyers; the be the impact of synthetic landlords hired thugs. Meanwhile, indigo on the prices of natural the information about synthetic indigo?
At this point Gandhi arrived in Champaran. He began by trying to get the facts. The secretary told him that they could give no information to an outsider. Gandhi answered that he was no outsider.
Next, Gandhi called on the British official commissioner of the Tirhut division in which the Champaran district lay. Instead he proceeded to Motihari, the capital of Champaran. Several lawyers accompanied him. At the railway station, a vast multitude greeted Gandhi. He went to a house and, using it as headquarters, continued his investigations.
A report came in that a peasant had been maltreated in a nearby village. Gandhi decided to go and see; the next morning he started out on the back of an elephant. Gandhi complied. The messenger drove Gandhi home where he served him with an official notice to quit Champaran immediately. Gandhi signed a receipt for the notice and wrote on it that he would disobey the order. In consequence, Gandhi received a summons to appear in court the next day. All night Gandhi remained awake.
He telegraphed Rajendra Prasad to come from Bihar with influential friends. He sent instructions to the ashram. He wired a full report to the Viceroy. Morning found the town of Motihari black with peasants.
They had merely heard that a Mahatma who wanted to help them was in trouble with the authorities. Their spontaneous demonstration, in thousands, around the courthouse was the beginning of their liberation from fear of the British.
He helped them regulate the crowd. He was polite and friendly. He was giving them concrete proof that their might, hitherto dreaded and unquestioned, could be challenged by Indians. The government was baffled. The prosecutor requested the judge to postpone the trial. Apparently, the authorities wished to consult their superiors. Gandhi protested against the delay.
He read a statement pleading guilty. He asked the penalty due. The magistrate announced that he would pronounce sentence after a two-hour recess and asked Gandhi to furnish bail for those minutes. Gandhi refused. The judge released him without bail. When the court reconvened, the judge said he would not deliver the judgment for several days. Meanwhile he allowed Gandhi to remain at liberty. They conferred with Gandhi. What would they do if he was sentenced to prison, Gandhi asked.
Why, the senior lawyer replied, they had come to advise and help him; if he went to jail there would be nobody to advise and they would go home. What about the injustice to the sharecroppers, Gandhi demanded. The lawyers withdrew to consult. The events in this part of the exclaimed.
Can you identify into pairs and put down the order some instances of this in which each pair was to court method and link them to his arrest. Civil disobedience had triumphed, the first time in modern India. Gandhi and the lawyers now proceeded to conduct a far -flung inquiry into the grievances of the farmers. Depositions by about ten thousand peasants were written down, and notes made on other evidence.
Documents were collected. The whole area throbbed with the activity of the investigators and the vehement protests of the landlords. Before he went he met. The commission consisted of landlords, government officials, and Gandhi as the sole representative of the peasants.
Gandhi remained in Champaran for an initial uninterrupted period of seven months and then again for several shorter visits. The official inquiry assembled a crushing mountain of evidence against the big planters, and when they saw this they agreed, in principle, to make refunds to the peasants.
They thought he would demand repayment in full of the money which they had illegally and deceitfully extorted from the sharecroppers. He asked only 50 per cent. Hodge, a British missionary in Champaran who observed the entire episode at close range. Gandhi took him at his word, thus breaking the deadlock.
Gandhi explained that the amount of the refund was less important than the fact that the landlords had been obliged to surrender part of the money and, with it, part of their prestige. Therefore, as far as the peasants were concerned, the planters had behaved as lords above.
Now the peasant saw that he had rights and defenders. He learned courage. Within a few years the British planters abandoned their estates, which reverted to the peasants. Indigo sharecropping disappeared. Gandhi never contented himself with large political or economic solutions. He saw the cultural and social backwardness in the Champaran villages and wanted to do something about it immediately. He appealed for teachers. Mahadev Desai and Narhari Parikh, two young men who had just joined Gandhi as disciples, and their wives, volunteered for the work.
Several more came from Bombay, Poona and other distant parts of the land. Why did Gandhi agree to a Gandhi. Primary schools were settlement of 25 per cent opened in six villages.
Kasturbai refund to the farmers? How did the episode change the plight of the peasants? Health conditions were miserable.
Gandhi got a doctor to volunteer his services for six months. Three medicines were available — castor oil, quinine and sulphur ointment. Anybody who showed a coated tongue was given a dose of castor oil; anybody with malaria fever received quinine plus castor oil; anybody with skin eruptions received ointment plus castor oil.
He asked Kasturbai to talk to them about it. The sari I am wearing is the only one I have. He sent regular instructions by mail and asked for financial accounts. Once he wrote to the residents that it was time to fill in the old latrine trenches and dig new ones otherwise the old ones would begin to smell bad.
I declared that the British could not order me about in my own country. It grew out of an attempt to alleviate the distress of large numbers of poor peasants. This was the typical Gandhi pattern — his politics were intertwined with the practical, day-to-day problems of the millions.
His was not a loyalty to abstractions; it was a loyalty to living, human beings. In everything Gandhi did, moreover, he tried to mould a new free Indian who could stand on his own feet and thus make India free. Early in the Champaran action, Charles Freer Andrews, the English pacifist who had become a devoted follower of the Mahatma, came to bid Gandhi farewell before going on a tour of duty to the Fiji Islands.
Andrews was willing if Gandhi agreed. But Gandhi was vehemently opposed. This shows the weakness of your heart. The cause is just and you must rely upon yourselves to win the battle. You should not seek a prop in Mr. Self-reliance, Indian independence and help to sharecroppers were all bound together. Why do you think Gandhi considered the Champaran episode to be a turning-point in his life? How was Gandhi able to influence lawyers? Give instances. How do we know that ordinary people too contributed to the freedom movement?
The qualities of a good leader. Why does the author use quotations in his narration? Notice the use or non-use of the comma in the following sentences. Choose an issue that has provoked a controversy like the Bhopal Gas Tragedy or the Narmada Dam Project in which the lives of the poor have been affected. Find out the facts of the case. Present your arguments. Suggest a possible settlement.
The think as you read questions at the end of each section help in understanding descriptions of people, consolidating facts and focusing on what is important to understand further sections. Pupils are already aware of the form changes when spoken words are reported.
They should now be able to notice the choice of form in contexts of use to strengthen the effectiveness of narration.
The Gemini Studios, located in Chennai, was set up in It was one of the most influential film- producing organisations of India in the early days of Indian film-making. Its founder was S. The duty of Asokamitran in Gemini Studios was to cut out newspaper clippings on a wide variety of subjects and store them in files.
Many of these had to be written out by hand. Although he performed an insignificant function he was the most well-informed of all the members of the Gemini family. The following is an excerpt from his book My Years with Boss. Pancake was the brand name of the make-up material that Gemini Studios bought in truck-loads. Greta Garbo1 must have used it, Miss Gohar must have used it, Vyjayantimala2 must also have used it but Rati Agnihotri may not have even heard of it.
A dozen other buildings 1. A Swedish actress, in she received an Honorary Oscar for her unforgettable screen performances. The Guinness Book of World Records named her the most beautiful woman who ever lived. She was also voted Best Silent Actress of the country. She won three Best Actress awards for her acting. She is now an active politician. For his brief life and an even briefer stay in Madras, Robert Clive seems to have done a lot of moving, besides fighting some impossible battles in remote corners of India and marrying a maiden in St.
George in Madras. The make-up room had the look of a hair-cutting salon with lights at all angles around half a dozen large mirrors.
They were all incandescent lights, so you can imagine the fiery misery of those subjected to make-up. The make-up department was first headed by a Bengali who became too big for a studio and left. All this shows that there was a great deal of national integration long before A. This gang of nationally integrated make-up men could turn any decent-looking person into a hideous crimson hued monster with the help of truck-loads of pancake and a number of other locally made potions and lotions. Those were the days of mainly indoor shooting, and only five per cent of the film was shot outdoors.
I suppose the sets and studio lights needed the girls and boys to be made to look ugly in order to look presentable in the movie.
A strict hierarchy was maintained in the make-up department. The players who played the crowd were the responsibility of the office boy. On the days when there was a crowd- shooting, you could see him mixing his paint in a giant vessel and.
The idea was to close every pore on the surface of the face in the process of applying make-up. He was a bit of a poet. In those days I worked in a 1.
What is the example of know at that time they were called national integration that the French windows. Seeing me author refers to? Why most people thought I was doing did he join the studios? Why next to nothing. It is likely that was he disappointed?
Why did the author appear to anyone who felt I should be given be doing nothing at the studios? Soon I was praying for crowd-shooting all the time. Nothing short of it could save me from his epics. In all instances of frustration, you will always find the anger directed towards a single person openly or covertly and this man of the make-up department was convinced that all his woes, ignominy and neglect were due to Kothamangalam Subbu. Subbu was the No.
On the contrary he must have had to face more uncertain and difficult times, for when he began his career, there were no firmly established film producing companies or studios. But by virtue of being born a Brahmin — a virtue, indeed! He had the ability to look cheerful at all times even after having had a hand in a flop film. He was tailor-made for films.
Here was a man who could be inspired when commanded. Film-making must have been and was so easy with a man like Subbu around and if ever there was a man who gave direction and definition to Gemini Studios during its golden years, it was Subbu.
Subbu had a separate identity as a poet and though he was certainly capable of more complex and higher forms, he deliberately chose to address his poetry to the masses. His success in films overshadowed and dwarfed his literary achievements — or so his critics felt.
He quite successfully recreated the mood and manner of the Devadasis of the early 20th century. He was an amazing actor — he never aspired to the lead roles — but whatever subsidiary role he played in any of the films, he performed better than the supposed main players.
He had a genuine love for anyone he came across and his house was a permanent residence for dozens of near and far relations and acquaintances.
Such a charitable and improvident man, and yet he had enemies! Was it because he seemed so close and intimate with The Boss?
Or his readiness to say nice things about everything? In any. You saw Subbu always with The Boss but in the attendance rolls, he was grouped under a department called the Story Department comprising a lawyer and an assembly of writers and poets. The lawyer was also officially known as the legal adviser, but everybody referred to him as the opposite.
An extremely talented actress, who was also extremely temperamental, once blew over on the sets. While everyone stood stunned, the lawyer quietly switched on the recording equipment. But when she heard her voice again through the sound equipment, she was struck dumb. She never quite recovered from the terror she felt that day. That was the end of a brief and brilliant acting career — the legal adviser, who was also a member of the Story Department, had unwittingly brought about that 1.
Why was the office boy sad end. While every other frustrated? Who did he show member of the Department wore his anger on? Subbu is described as a many-sided genius. List four of clumsily tailored white khadi his special abilities.
Why was the legal adviser pants and a tie and sometimes a referred to as the opposite by coat that looked like a coat of others? Often he looked alone and 5. What made the lawyer stand helpless — a man of cold logic in out from the others at Gemini a crowd of dreamers — a neutral Studios? Like so many of those who were close to The Boss, he was allowed to produce a film and though a. Then one day The Boss closed down the Story Department and this was perhaps the only instance in all human history where a lawyer lost his job because the poets were asked to go home.
Gemini Studios was the favourite haunt of poets like S. It had an excellent mess which supplied good coffee at all times of the day and for most part of the night. Those were the days when Congress rule meant Prohibition and meeting over a cup of coffee was rather satisfying entertainment.
Barring the office boys and a couple of clerks, everybody else at the Studios radiated leisure, a pre-requisite for poetry. Most of them wore khadi and worshipped Gandhiji but beyond that they had not the faintest appreciation for political thought of any kind.
A Communist was a godless man — he had no filial or conjugal love; he had no compunction about killing his own parents or his children; he was always out to cause and spread unrest and violence among innocent and ignorant people.
Such notions which prevailed everywhere else in South India at that time also, naturally, floated about vaguely among the khadi-clad poets of Gemini Studios. Evidence of it was soon forthcoming. Someone called the group an international circus.
The message of the plays were usually plain and simple homilies, but the sets and costumes were first-rate. Madras and the Tamil drama community were 3. A freedom fighter and a national poet. A poet and a playwright. It was some years later that I learnt that the MRA was a kind of counter- movement to international Communism and the big bosses of Madras like Mr. Vasan simply played into their hands. I am not sure however, that this was indeed the case, for the unchangeable aspects of these big bosses and their enterprises remained the same, MRA or no MRA, international Communism or no international Communism.
The staff of Gemini Studios had a nice time hosting two hundred people of all hues and sizes of at least twenty nationalities. It was such a change from the usual collection of crowd players waiting to be slapped with thick layers of make-up by the office-boy in the make-up department.
A few months later, the telephone lines of the big bosses of Madras buzzed and once again we at Gemini Studios cleared a whole shooting stage to welcome another visitor. All they said was that he was a poet from England. The only poets from England the simple Gemini staff knew or heard of were Wordsworth and Tennyson; the more literate ones knew of Keats, Shelley and Byron; and one or two might have faintly come to know of someone by the name Eliot.
Who was the poet visiting the Gemini Studios now? He is an editor. Since the top men of The Hindu were taking the initiative, the surmise was that the poet was the editor of a daily — but not from The Manchester Guardian or the London Times. That was all that even the most well- informed among us knew. At last, around four in the afternoon, the poet or the editor arrived. He was a tall man, very English, very serious and of course very unknown to all of us.
Battling with half a dozen pedestal fans on the shooting stage, The Boss read. It was obvious that he too knew precious little 1. Did the people at Gemini about the poet or the editor. The Studios have any particular speech was all in the most general political affiliations? Then the poet at the Studios? Name one example to show more dazed and silent audience — that Gemini studios was influenced by the plays staged no one knew what he was talking by MRA.
Who was The Boss of Gemini attempt to understand what he was Studios? The whole thing lasted about 5. What caused the lack of an hour; then the poet left and we communication between the all dispersed in utter bafflement — Englishman and the people at what are we doing? What is an Gemini Studios? English poet doing in a film studio 6. People whose mystery?
The poet looked pretty baffled too, for he too must have felt the sheer incongruity of his talk about the thrills and travails of an English poet. His visit remained an unexplained mystery. The great prose-writers of the world may not admit it, but my conviction grows stronger day after day that prose- writing is not and cannot be the true pursuit of a genius. It was for such people that The Hindu had published a tiny announcement in an insignificant corner of an unimportant page — a short story contest organised by a British periodical by the name The Encounter.
I wanted to get an idea of the periodical before I spent a considerable sum in postage sending a manuscript. In those days, the British Council Library had an entrance with no long winded signboards and notices to make you feel you were sneaking into a forbidden area. And there were copies of The Encounter lying about in various degrees of freshness, almost untouched by readers.
It was the poet who had visited the Gemini Studios — I felt like I had found a long lost brother and I sang as I sealed the envelope and wrote out his address. I felt that he too would be singing the same song at the same time — long lost brothers of Indian films discover each other by singing the same song in the first reel and in the final reel of the film.
Stephen Spender 5. Stephen — that was his name. And years later, when I was out of Gemini Studios and I had much time but not much money, anything at a reduced price attracted my attention. On the footpath in front of the Madras Mount Road Post Office, there was a pile of brand new books for fifty paise each. Actually they were copies of the same book, an elegant paperback of American origin. Fischer 10 and Stephen Spender. What does The God that Stephen Spender!
Suddenly the Failed refer to? An English poet essayist who concentrated on themes of social injustice and class struggle. A French writer, humanist, moralist, received the Nobel Prize for Literature in An Italian writer, who was the founder member of the Italian communist party in , and is known for the book. The God That Failed, authored by him. A Hungarian born British novelist, known for his novel Darkness at Noon. The Oscar winning film Gandhi is based on this biographical account.
Stephen Spender, the poet who had visited Gemini Studios! In a moment I felt a dark chamber of my mind lit up by a hazy illumination. The reaction to Stephen Spender at Gemini Studios was no longer a mystery. But not with his god that failed.
The author has used gentle humour to point out human foibles. Pick out instances of this to show how this serves to make the piece interesting. Why was Kothamangalam Subbu considered No. How does the author describe the incongruity of an English poet addressing the audience at Gemini Studios? Talking about the text Discuss in small groups taking off from points in the text. Film-production today has come a long way from the early days of the Gemini Studios.
Poetry and films. Humour and criticism. One thought leads to another which is then dwelt upon at length. The first one is indicated below. Make-up department Office-boy Subbu. Writing You must have met some interesting characters in your neighbourhood or among your relatives. Write a humourous piece about their idiosyncrasies. Comment on the interplay of the words and the pictures used. He was a reporter for Private Eye for ten years and has written features for Vanity Fair.
Part I Since its invention a little over years ago, the interview has become a commonplace of journalism. Today, almost everybody who is literate will have read an interview at some point in their lives, while from the other point of view, several thousand celebrities have been interviewed over the years, some of them repeatedly. So it is hardly surprising that opinions of the interview — of its functions, methods and merits — vary considerably. Some might make quite extravagant claims for it as being, in its highest form, a source of truth, and, in its practice, an art.
Known as a cosmopolitan writer. In his travel books and in his documentary works he presents his impressions of the country of his ancestors that is India. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in Rudyard Kipling2 expressed an even more condemnatory attitude towards the interviewer. Because it is immoral! It is a crime, just as much of a crime as an offence against my person, as an assault, and just as much merits punishment.
It is cowardly and vile. What are some of the positive Joseph Stalin4. Saul Bellow5, who views on interviews? Why do most celebrity writers on several occasions, nevertheless despise being interviewed?
What is the belief in some being like thumbprints on his primitive cultures about being windpipe. Yet despite the photographed? A prolific writer who was known as the poet of the common soldier. An English novelist, journalist, sociologist and historian he is known for his works of science fiction. A great Russian revolutionary and an active political organiser. Among his most famous characters are Augie March and Moses.
He published short stories translated from Yiddish. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in Because of this, the interviewer holds a position of unprecedented power and influence.
The interviewer is Mukund Padmanabhan from The Hindu. They lack hopes and optimist. Here the poet wants those slum children should get proper education so that they brighten up their future. This poem reflects peace and harmony everywhere.
Here the poet asks human to count from number one to twelve because twelve is the number of a clock and the zodiac sign. He requests everyone not to speak until he counts to twelve because when we spoke, languages create barriers between people and for a moment when everybody stops moving, you will find peace around you and in yourself.
Poet says that in the period of inactivity, a fisherman would not harm the whales, the salt gatherers will not hurt their hands and there would be no wars and victory for a while. A good and beautiful thing is a source of joy and gives us eternal happiness which never fades away. As the earth is full of hatred, greed, and negativity. But the beauty lies in the eyes of a beholder and God created a numerous beautiful thing on this earth as the sun gives us energy, the moon gives light and trees gives us the shade.
So here the poet says that a thing of beauty is a joy forever, its loveliness increases and it never passes into nothingness. He contracts the lives of poor people with that of rich people. The poor people constructed the roadside stand to sell their goodies to earn some of the money for his basic needs. But the rich person does not even bother to look at it and they just ignored and criticise them.
A poor person does not do any begging, instead, he makes his small effort to sell the goodies. He is sitting on the roadside in hoping that any of car passer will download something from me but they badly point at him. Her poet believes that the rich person will not find any progress until he is not helping the poor person. Here the Aunt Jennifer and Tiger are the two main characters. The Aunt is embroidering a piece of cloth and the pattern shows the tigers moving and jumping over the fabric.
Here the tigers are fearless and a lady who is embroidering is bounded. The Vedantu Advantage At Vedantu we aim to provide a sophisticated yet convenient and easy mode of learning. Our platform identifies the requirements of pupils and our teachers help guide you to simplified concepts in every subject.
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We focus on providing technology-based interfaces which are interactive and provide the much-needed individual attention on each student. The study method can vary from one student to another. Based on the individual patterns of learning, our teachers work out the most effective study plan customized to the needs of individual students. The author has used gentle humour to point out human foibles. Pick out instances of this to show how this serves to make the piece interesting. Why was Kothamangalam Subbu considered No.
How does the author describe the incongruity of an English poet addressing the audience at Gemini Studios? Talking about the Text Discuss in small groups taking off from points in the text. Film-production today has come a long way from the early days of the Gemini Studios.
Poetry and films. Humour and criticism. Ncert solution class 12 English Core includes text book solutions from both part 1 and part 2.